Lesson Plan on the Mayflower, the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag
|Teacher: Mitchell (Mimi) Allerton
Subject: Social Studies
|Grade Level: 5th
Date: November 8, 2000
Sunshine State Strand, Standard and Benchmark - SS.A.4.2.1
Strand A: Time, Continuity, and Change (History)
Standard 4: The student understands United States history to 1880.
Benchmark 2.1: The student understands the geographic, economic, political and
cultural factors that characterized early exploration of the Americas.
I. Content: I want my students to understand how the choice
the Pilgrims made to start a new life in America affected both themselves and
the Native People who had been living in the Americas for thousands of years
prior to the arrival of the Europeans.
II. Prerequisites: Students should have background knowledge of the
immigrate, emigrate, events in England and why many people chose to leave
(e.g. religious controversy and persecution, and economic hardship).
III. Instructional Objective: When requested, the student will
compose, in written form, journal entries and a story regarding the
Mayflower era. They must reference the following who, what, when, where, why
and how, and include both Pilgrims and Wampanoag Native People in the
- Who - names and descriptions of three passengers on the Mayflower and two
- What - events that happened on the voyage or during the first year (e.g.
deaths due to illness and malnutrition, fires, building the settlement)
- When - time line with important dates listed in chronological order
- Where - ship sailed from where in Europe and landed where in America
- Why and How - religious freedom, the purpose behind the Mayflower Compact,
the Pilgrims had to build shelter and find sources of food, the Pilgrims
learned to work and live cooperatively with the Wampanoag, the Pilgrims and
Wampanoag signed a Treaty of Peace, an alliance that lasted for 50 years,
IV. Instructional Procedures:
Day 1: I will have pre-selected five students to represent the
Hopkins family - Elizabeth (the mother, who was pregnant), Stephen (father),
and Gyles, Constance and Damaris (children). I will have marked the floor
with masking tape a rectangular area 6' in length by 3' in height and the
children will stand, sit or lie in this area. I will show a diagram of the
Mayflower on the overhead projector -- a side view of the ship with all
sections highlighted (e.g. the rigging, the half deck, the steerage, 'tween
decks, etc.). I will tell the students that 102 people were living in a room
the size of a volleyball court for 66 days and nights. A family had to exist
in this tiny space. There will be a list of passengers on a poster board and
I will discuss some of the passengers in further detail. I will display a
map and we will chart the course of the Mayflower and discuss the voyage.
Day 2: I will read The Pilgrims of Plimoth and the students
will take turns reading Tapenaum's Day: A Wampanoag Indian Boy in Pilgrim
Times. Displayed on several poster boards will be quotes from Bradford,
Winslow and other pilgrims on the voyage, death at sea, the arrival at Cape
Cod, the first winter, relations with native people, and accounts of the
First Harvest Celebration. I will make a chart on the chalkboard and the
students will help me list the important facts gleaned from the books and
Day 3: I will tell stories and discuss the following, and also those
noted in the objective:
- What is the history of the Mayflower ship prior to and after the voyage?
- Who were William Bradford, John Carver, Edward Winslow and Isaac Allerton?
- Were the Pilgrims Puritans or Separatists?
- What does Wampanoag mean (eastern people or people of the dawn) and how
did they differ from other Native People?
- Who were Massasoit, Tisquantum (Squanto), Samoset and Hobbamock?
- How many Pilgrims died the first winter (half)?
- What did Tisquantum and the Wampanoag people teach the Pilgrims?
- Would any Pilgrims have survived if Tisquantum and the Wampanoag people
hadn't taught them about planting, fishing and hunting?
- How did the culture of the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag people differ
(religion, clothing, food, leadership, language, traditions, customs, and
- What is the First Harvest Celebration? How did this event evolve into a
holiday declared by Continental Congress in 1777 and a national holiday by
Abraham Lincoln in 1863?
- Are any Presidents or First Ladies of the United States descendants of the
Day 4 and 5: The students have to write in journals describing, in
detail, several days in the life of a Pilgrim or a Wampanoag child, circa
1620-1622. There will be numerous research books, encyclopedias and a list
of Internet web pages to help the students research and write stories. The
students will work in cooperative groups doing research and helping each
other write in journals. The students will continue researching and writing
in their journals the next day in cooperative groups. Weekend homework will
be to write two more journal entries. The students are told they will have
to write a story without looking at their journals or research materials on
the following Monday.
Day 6: I will give an oral summary of the Mayflower, Pilgrims and
Wampanoag and put a list of facts on the overhead projector. We will have a
question, answer and discussion period. This will be followed by the
students' assignment to write a story in class without looking at their
journals or research materials. The stories must include:
- description of the ship or an event that occurred on the voyage
- explanation of the Mayflower Compact
- three descriptions each of the Pilgrim and Wampanoag cultures
- four events that occurred during the first year in America with supporting
- a time line with five events in chronological order or
- a map of the course the Mayflower sailed
ESOL Considerations: I will create picture cards for visual aids and
write the names of important people/events on large cards as graphic
organizers. The children will work in cooperative groups during the research
activities and can help each other. I will modify my speech, repeat and
rephrase as necessary. I will be available to help individual children
before or after school. Through these strategies and a positive classroom
atmosphere of acceptance I hope to reduce the anxiety level of ESOL
V. Materials and Equipment:
Diagram of the Mayflower (overhead transparency)
Map for charting the course of the Mayflower (overhead transparency)
Poster boards with list of passengers and quotes
Overhead projector, chalkboard, colored markers, masking tape, yardstick
The Pilgrims of Plimoth by Marcia Sewall
Tapenum's Day: A Wampanoag Indian Boy in Pilgrim Times by Kate Waters
Reference Materials and Books:
Encyclopedia (books and on-line versions and children's reference books)
Copy of the Mayflower Compact of Plymouth Plantation by William Bradford
Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth (written by
the Pilgrims themselves)
Land Ho! - 1620. A Seaman's Story of the Mayflower, Her Construction, Her
Navigation and Her First Landfall by W. Sears Nickerson
Indian New England Before the Mayflower by Howard S. Russell
New England Indians by C. Keith Wilbur
Clambake: A Wampanoag Tradition by Russell M. Peters
http://www.plimoth.org - Plimoth-on-Web - Plimoth Plantation - The Living
History Museum of 17th Century Plymouth
http://teacher.scholastic.com - The First Thanksgiving Teacher's Guide
http://members.aol.com/calebj/ - Caleb Johnson Mayflower Web Pages
VI. Assessment/Evaluation: I will assess students' understanding of the
concepts taught based upon the completeness, accuracy, clarity and detail in their journals
and stories. Grammar and spelling will be assessed as well as content. I will grade the
stories and journals on a rubric scale.
VII. Follow-up Activities: Multicultural: Each student will be given
the assignment to ask family members (father, mother, grandfather, grandmother
on both paternal and maternal side) his/her history and heritage and take
notes on index cards. The students will have to explain their own story with
the rest of the class using the note cards. I will explain the concept that we
all come from someplace in the world and we each have our own personal
stories. Geography/Map: This could extend to a map activity. I will
explain that my father's ancestors are from England and Ireland and tell
stories. I place tags coded "Allerton - Father" on pins over England
and Ireland. Next I explain that my mother's ancestors are from Belguim and
England and place tags on "Allerton - Mother" on pins over these two
countries. I have prepared in advance tags for each child with their last
names printed in black marker. The children and I will place tags on the world
according to which student belongs to which place.. A class discussion will
follow on different cultures and places in the world and that we, in America,
live in a big "melting pot".
VIII. Self-Assessment: I will assess the information contained in the
journals and stories to see if the students have grasped the major concepts of the Mayflower,
Pilgrims and Wampanoag. I will note class participation, questions asked, and how well the
students were able to research facts. I will determine if there are any discrepancies
between the instructional objectives and the actual learning outcomes by assessing the
class discussions and information contained in their journal entries and stories. I
will ask myself the following:
- What went well and what didnít go well?
- Were the students excited and motivated about this topic?
- Were my objectives achieved?
- What can I do to improve the next lesson and make notes, accordingly, on my lesson
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