Accountability is a major focus of recent education reform efforts being made at national and state levels. Accountability means many
things, but one constant is that it requires measureable results based on
agreed-upon goals and objectives. Well-stated, clear objectives are fundamental
to all professional teaching and measures taken to hold teachers accountable for
what their students learn. It also means, in my opinion that the employers of
teachers are also accountable for providing the necessary professional resources
to the teachers. Anything short of that is simply dishonest. To that end, I have presented this page both on my
new ADPRIMAX site and the original ADPRIMA site. This page is updated as
you at this point to check out my program entitled "Catalyst: Tools for
Effective Teaching." It begins with a thorough tutorial on how to write
objectives, and includes modules on lesson planning, classroom management,
teaching methods, and much more. Please check it out at
many, if not most teachers, learning objectives are central to all lesson plans
they develop themselves or adapt from those written by others. That said, objectives that are used in education, whether they are called learning objectives, behavioral objectives, instructional objectives, or performance objectives are terms that refer to descriptions of observable student behavior or performance that are used to make judgments about learning -
certainly the ultimate aim of all teaching. At some point, almost every teacher, especially new teachers and teacher education students, must learn to write these types of objectives. Here, such objectives are referred to as learning objectives. Acquiring this skill is something of a rite of passage in the process of becoming a teacher, yet it is a skill that requires practice, feedback, and experience. Over the past 30 years or so, the emphasis on, and attention paid to learning objectives has waxed and waned as different ideas change about how best to express instructional intent. To clarify a bit, I have included a
rationale for developing and using learning objectives that meet demanding behavioral criteria. It provides in-depth information that you might find helpful. Any skill is learned more effectively if the learner understands the reason for learning and practicing it.
Developing this skill in relation composing learning objectives is no exception.
Learning objectives are about
curriculum, not instruction. They are concerned
with ends, and not necessarily means. This is a key point. Many tend to confuse learning objectives with objectives a teacher may have that relate to student conduct or behavior in a classroom. Properly constructed
behavioral learning objectives are about the evidence of learning; they specify what behavior a student must demonstrate or perform in order for a teacher to infer that learning took place. Since learning cannot be seen directly, teachers must make
inferences about learning from evidence they can see and measure. Learning objectives, if constructed properly, provide an ideal vehicle for making those inferences.
The purpose of a learning objective is to communicate. Therefore, a well-constructed
behavioral learning objective should leave little room for doubt about what is intended. A well constructed learning objective describes an intended learning outcome and contains three parts, each of which alone means nothing, but when combined into a sentence or two, communicates the conditions under which the behavior is performed, a verb that
describes the behavior itself, and the degree (criteria) to which a student must perform the behavior. If any one of these three components is missing, the objective cannot communicate accurately.
Therefore, the parts of a learning objective are:
1. Conditions (a statement that describes the conditions under which the behavior is to be performed)
2. Behavioral Verb (an action word that connotes an observable student behavior)
3. Criteria (a statement that specifies how well the student must perform the behavior).
A learning objective is the focal point of a lesson plan. It is a description of an intended learning outcome and is the basis for the rest of the lesson. It provides criteria for constructing an assessment for the lesson, as well as for the instructional procedures the teacher designs to implement the lesson. A learning objective determines the criteria for any
assessment rubric. As you will see, without a
learning objective that clearly communicates specific student behavior or performance, it is difficult, if not impossible to determine exactly what a particular lesson is supposed to accomplish.
In order to write learning objectives, one should begin with an understanding of the particular content to which the objectives will relate. Understanding in more than one way the content to be learned should be a goal of teachers as well as students. This implies that teachers or others who prepare objectives as part of lesson plans or curriculum documents and guides should have more than superficial knowledge of the appropriate content. Writing a series of objectives that are within a body of content, but which have neither internal nor external consistency with that body of content is not a productive use of time. However, the purpose of this is not to delve into the area of curriculum consistency, but rather present some pointers to help the reader write better objectives. So, with that in mind, let's begin.
1. The Conditions
The conditions part of an objective specify the circumstances, commands, materials, directions, etc., that the student is given to initiate the behavior. All behavior relevant to intended student learning outcomes can best be understood within a context of the conditions under which the behavior is to be performed or demonstrated. The conditions part of an objective usually begins with a simple declarative statement such as the following:
Upon request the student will (this means the student is given an oral or written request to do something).
Given (some physical object) the student will (this means the student is actually given something, such as a map, a number or multiplication problems, a literary passage, etc., that relates to performing the intended behavior).
Notice that in the examples above, there is no mention of the description of the instruction that precedes the initiation of the behavior. The instruction that leads to the behavior should never be included in the actual objective. Instruction that leads students to accomplishing an objective is a separate issue. Here, we want to concentrate on describing only the conditions under which the desired student behavior is to be performed.
2. The Verb
We all learned in elementary school that a verb is an action word. In a learning objective, the verb is also an action word, but it is also a special kind of action word. The verb in a learning objective is an action word that connotes an observable behavior. For example, although we as teachers all want our students to appreciate one thing or another, it is impossible to see when a student "appreciates" something. Understand is another noble word that connotes something we want our students to do, but we cannot see "understanding." The best we can do is make inferences that a student appreciates or understands something based on what the student does or says in a controlled situation.
What then are behavioral verbs? The answer is quite simple. A behavioral verb is a word that denotes an observable action, or the creation of an observable product. Verbs such as identify, name, and describe are behavioral because you can observe the act or product of identifying, naming, or describing. Some verbs are embedded in a phrase that gives them a specific behavioral meaning. Examples are state a rule and apply a rule. In this case the behavior is contextual, and the context is the rule in question.
There are many verbs that qualify as behavioral. For a list of these verbs, and their definitions,
click here. To see examples of verbs used in language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies,
click here. To see some education student produced lesson plans that have behavioral verbs,
3. The Criteria
The criteria part of a learning objective is a declarative statement that describes how well the behavior must be performed to satisfy the intent of the behavioral verb. Usually, criteria are expressed in some minimum number, or as what must be, as a minimum, included in a student response. For example, an objective might be of the form: Given a list of the first 100 numbers arranged in ascending order (conditions), the student will identify (verb) at least nine prime numbers (criteria). Notice that the objective doesn't specify which nine numbers, and sets a floor of at least nine as a minimum. Also, the method by which the student identifies the minimum nine prime numbers is not specified; that is determined in the actual assessment. The student could circle the numbers, highlight them, draw line through them, etc. It is also implied that the student will be correct if he identifies more than nine correctly, but does not specify whether it is acceptable to identify nine correctly and one or more incorrectly. According to the objective, it would be acceptable to circle the following numbers and still meet the intent of the objective: 2-3-5-7-11-13-17-19-23-24-26, because he got nine correct, and two (24-26) incorrect. If the student must identify only prime numbers, then the objective would need to be modified to include that provision.
Putting it all together
Well-written learning objectives are the heart of any lesson plan. If the objectives you compose are "fuzzy" and difficult, if not impossible to
assess, the rest of the lesson plan you create that is based on the objective is likely to be flawed. Before you begin to write an objective, spend a little time thinking about what you are describing, and remember to make the student behavior observable. You will find this process helps you to clarify what you intend, and you will be better able to communicate that intent to your students, regardless of their grade level, age, or subject. On the matter of being "fuzzy," remember this: fuzzy thinking might get you through the day, but it will never get you through a career.
Any time you write a learning objective, ask yourself the question, "Does this objective clearly communicate and describe the intended learning outcome?" If you can find exceptions or loopholes as a way of meeting the objective, then the objective should be rewritten. Learning to write learning objectives that describe what you want takes patience and practice. Make sure you get as much feedback as possible about your efforts.
You might also want to read "What Does it Mean to Understand Something?" It will give you another perspective regarding the ends of these types of specific objectives.
Toward that end, I sincerely hope this short explanation is helpful to you.
This page is a start, but, if you really want to learn and improve your skills in writing
behavioral learning objectives or selecting objectives written by others, please consider purchasing my comprehensive self-instructional, interactive program. It is available in both download and CD format. It is inexpensive, and most of all, it really does
teach you how to do this. Click on this link to read more.
To see how objectives fit into an instructional system, be sure to visit the ADPRIMA Instruction System page by
"Anything not understood in more than one way is not understood at all."
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The Bucci Strain: Imprint
"Anything not understood in more than one way is not
understood at all"
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